Nepal

INFORMATION ABOUT NEPAL

Surrounded by two giants India to the south and China to the north Nepal is a country while length about 890 km for only 150 km to 250 km wide.

Its width extends from the Indian side of an altitude of about 50 m above sea level in less than 200 km to an altitude of 8860 m at the summit of the Everest common between Nepal and Tibet. Between the two an area of ​​medium mountain where is Kathmandu the capital at 1400 m altitude.

Some figures on Nepal:

  • Area of ​​147 000 km2
  • 29,000,000 inhabitants including 1,500,000 in Kathmandu and nearly 3,000,000 in its valley.
  • The literacy rate is 70%
  • The population is 85% rural.
  • Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 72 years for women.
  • 25% of the population is between 16 and 29 years of age.
  • 55% of Nepalese have access to the Internet.
  • The fertility rate is 2.3 children per woman.

The ethnic groups of Nepal

There are over 80 ethnic groups in Nepal. The Chetris, the Brahmins, the Newars inhabitants of Kathmandu and the best known Sherpas “people of the East” who 500 years ago left Tibet to come to Nepal mainly in the valley of Everest.

Regarding caste Nepal abolished the caste system in 1963. However, it was not until 1990 that the Constitution introduced this abolition into law.

But in reality still today in some regions the castes represent a social classification.

The government

In 2007, Nepal put an end to the Royalty and set up a Federal Democratic Republic.

The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held in 2014. It is responsible for drafting the Constitution of Nepal.

The new Constitution was formally promulgated on 20 September 2015 and defines Nepal as a secular federation of 7 states.

Since the promulgation of the new constitution, it was not until July 7, 2017 that bills on the implementation of the federal structure were presented to Parliament.

The Economy of Nepal

Nepal is one of the 10 poorest countries despite GDP growth of 4% to 5% per year on average but with inflation of 10%. The annual per capita income is around 1100 Euros.

Forecasts for 2017 show a growth of 4.6% with a marked improvement in inflation reduced to around 5%.

According to the World Bank, 25% of the population lives below the poverty line set at $ 1.25 a day.

  • The agriculture represents 30% of GDP.
  • The art services and tourism represent over 30% of GDP. Tourism alone accounts for almost 8% of GDP.
  • The industry accounts for only 15%, mainly by cereals processing, carpet making, jute production, Pashmina and leather garment factories.
  • Finally, immigrants’ income is 25% of GDP.

India and then China are the main economic partners of Nepal.
However, Nepal has a trade deficit of 5.5 billion Euros with India and 1 billion Euros with China (figures 2016).

Regarding caste Nepal abolished the caste system in 1963. However, it was not until 1990 that the Constitution introduced this abolition into law.

But in reality still today in some regions the castes represent a social classification.

Nepalese Immigration

About 11-15% of Nepal’s population lives and works abroad. This represents more than 3,000,000 people.

  • 45% in the Gulf countries
  • 35% in India
  • 10% in Malaysia
  • 10% elsewhere



Note that there are currently 200,000 Nepalese living in the United States. 

Today, more Nepalese die on the construction sites of the Gulf countries where they are victims of a form of “modern slavery” than at Everest.

50% of migrants are under 35 years old so the forces leave the country due to lack of work in Nepal.

The tourists

Nepal welcomed 790,000 tourists in 2014.
On the other hand, in 2015 there were only 540,000 tourists due to the earthquake.
2016 is the year of the resumption of tourist activity with the arrival of 753,000 tourists. That’s very good news. 

Official figures for 2016:
Indians 118,249, Chinese 104,005, Europe 98,000, Sri Lanka 57,521, United States 53,645, United Kingdom 46,295, Thailand 26,722, Australia 25,507 and 25,171 from Korea. 
For this year 2017 the government hopes nearly a million tourists. 
In a general way : 

  • Indian tourists are the most numerous to come to Nepal. They come mainly on pilgrimage.
  • The Chinese then arrive.
  • Then the Europeans, especially the United Kingdom.
  • Many Sri Lankans
  • Finally, North America.
  • There are also many Israelis.

It should be noted that there are more and more tourists coming from Russia. Trekkers and mountaineers make up only 20% of visitors.
The Annapurna region with about 125,000 tourists per year and the Khumbu and Mustang areas with 38,000 tourists each year are the most visited regions.
Finally, the regions of Annapurna, Khumbu, Mustang, Langtang and Manaslu alone account for 95% of the trekkers.

Regarding caste Nepal abolished the caste system in 1963. However, it was not until 1990 that the Constitution introduced this abolition into law.

But in reality still today in some regions the castes represent a social classification.

The Nepalese

The official language is Nepali. It is an Indo-Aryan language. For example 2 is called doui, 7 sat, 10 das, name is naam, my mero, etc. However, in business, industry and tourism, English is spoken.

The religious texts of the Lamas are written in Tibetan, which has nothing in common with Nepali.

The literacy rate among young people under the age of 25 is 80%

Religion

Hinduism is the first religion in Nepal, representing 85% of the population. 

Buddhism represents 10% of the population. These are mainly the ethnic groups of southern Nepal such as the Sherpas, Tamangs and Bhotia of the mountain areas near the Tibetan border. 

Islam 3.5% and Catholicism 1.5%.

The Himalayan chain

The Himalayas stretch over 2500 km long and 250 to 400 km wide. 

All summits over 8000 m are in the Himalayas. There are 14 of them, including 8 in Nepal, 5 in Pakistan and 1 in China in Tibet, Shishapangma.
The Himalayas are part of an even larger mountain range called “Hindu Kush Himalaya” which also includes Hindu-Kush, Pamir and Karakoram.
The main countries crossed by the Himalayan range are Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Nepal, China Tibet, Bhutan.

The fauna and the flora

You can see Bharals or blue sheep, marmots, monkeys and even wolves. There are also bears but very little chance to observe them as Snow Leopard. We also note the presence of Red Pandas which are protected animals.

As birds there are mainly raptors, griffon vultures, vultures, eagles, snowy partridges, etc.

The flora evolves according to the altitude, forests of pines, rhododendrons, juniper, etc.

Finally, in the Terai in the Chitwan reserve there are elephants, tigers, crocodiles, rhinoceros, antelopes, gazelles, etc.

The religious texts of the Lamas are written in Tibetan, which has nothing in common with Nepali.

The literacy rate among young people under the age of 25 is 80%

The school

In Nepal there is a public school which is free of charge (except registration, school supplies, uniforms, etc.) But it has little material means and little financial means. Courses are taught in Nepalese.

There is a private school where teaching is very expensive and expensive.
In return, education is of better quality. The courses are taught in English, resulting in much better employment prospects for students.

The enrollment rate is 87%.
In the Nepalese school system formerly the lower castes did not have access to certain posts. Recently a system of quota of open places for these castes has been established thus places are granted to the peasant castes.

As birds there are mainly raptors, griffon vultures, vultures, eagles, snowy partridges, etc.

The flora evolves according to the altitude, forests of pines, rhododendrons, juniper, etc.

Finally, in the Terai in the Chitwan reserve there are elephants, tigers, crocodiles, rhinoceros, antelopes, gazelles, etc.

The religious texts of the Lamas are written in Tibetan, which has nothing in common with Nepali.

The literacy rate among young people under the age of 25 is 80%

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